Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
Humans greatly benefit from many ecosystem services, such as clean air, purified water and food provision. In addition, terrestrial ecosystems provide natural resources used in industrial processes and cultural services such as outdoor recreation. Other services offered by ecosystems include protection from natural disasters such as flooding and the mitigation of the negative effects of climate change. Human activities that degrade ecosystems, including pollution and the overuse of resources, threaten animals and plants and as a result the provision of ecosystem services and their benefits to human well-being. Hence, EU legislation such as the Birds and Habitats Directives and policies such as the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 help to ensure a healthy ecosystem status. They also aim to ensure that terrestrial ecosystems and the services they provide are sustainably used and managed.